Materials for Microlithography. Radiation-Sensitive Polymers by L. F. , C. G. Willson, and J. M. J. Frechet, editors


By L. F. , C. G. Willson, and J. M. J. Frechet, editors Thompson

content material: primary limits of lithography / T.E. Everhart --
sensible and primary points of lithography / A.N. Broers --
A viewpoint on face up to fabrics for fine-line lithography / M.J. Bowden --
basic radiation chemistry : primary features of polymer degradation through high-energy radiation / D.J.T. Hill, J.H. O'Donnell, and P.J. Pomery --
Pulse radiolysis reports at the mechanism of the excessive sensitivity of chloromethylated polystyrene as an electron adverse face up to / Y. Tabata, S. Tagawa, and M. Washio --
Photochemistry of ketone polymers within the sturdy section : a assessment / J.E. Guillet, S.-K.L. Li, and H.C. Ng --
Radiolysis of poly(isopropenyl t-butyl ketone) / S.A. Macdonald, H. Ito, C.G. Willson, J.W. Moore, H.M. Gharapetian, and J.E. Guillet --
Polymer-bonded electron-transfer sensitizers / S. Tazuke, R. Takasaki, Y. Iwaya, and Y. Suzuki --
Laser-induced polymerization / C. Decker --
Novel synthesis and photochemical response of the polymers with pendant photosensitive and photosensitizer teams / T. Nishikubo, T. Iizawa, and E. Takahashi --
a singular method for choosing radiation chemical yields of destructive electron-beam resists / A. Novembre and T.N. Bowmer --
Anomalous topochemical photoreaction of olefin crystals / M. Hasegawa, ok. Saigo, and T. Mori --
The photo-Fries rearrangement and its use in polymeric imaging platforms / T.G. Tessier, J.M.J. Frechet, C.G. Willson, and H. Ito --
Soluble polysilane derivatives : fascinating new radiation-sensitive polymers / R.D. Miller, D. Hofer, D.R. McKean, C.G. Willson, R. West, and P.T. Trefonas, III --
education and determination features of a singular silicone-based adverse face up to / A. Tanaka, M. Morita, S. Imamura, T. Tamamura, and O. Kogure --
Positive-working electron-beam resists according to maleic anhydride copolymers / K.U. Pohl, F. Rodriguez, Y.M.N. Namaste, and S.K. Obendorf --
Functionally substituted Novolak resins : lithographic functions, radiation chemistry, and photooxidation / H. Hiraoka --
Synthesis, characterization and lithographic review of chlorinated polymethylstyrene / R. Tarascon, M. Hartney, and M.J. Bowden --
Photochemistry of ketone polymers within the stable section : skinny movie experiences of vinyl ketone polymers / J.E. Guillet, S.-K.L. Li, S.A. Macdonald, and C.G. Willson --
Polymers of [alpha]-substituted benzyl methacrylates and aliphatic aldehydes as new kinds of electron-beam resists / okay. Hatada, T. Kitayama, Y. Okamoto, H. Yuki, H. Aritome, S. Namba, okay. Nate, T. Inoue, and H. Yokono --
Radiation chemistry of phenolic resin containing epoxy and azide compounds / H. Shiraishi, T. Ueno, O. Suga, and S. Nonogaki --
natural direct optical recording media / L. Alexandru, M.A. Hopper, R.O. Loutfy, J.H. Sharp, P.S. Vincett, G.E. Johnson, and K.Y. legislations --
basic and secondary reactions in photoinitiated free-radical polymerization of natural coatings / A. Hult and B. Ranby --
Radiation balance of silicon elastomers / G.C. Corfield, D.T. Astill, and D.W. Clegg.

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32. Voss, R. Appl. Phys. Lett. 1980, 37, 656. 33. Herriott, D. R. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 1975, ED-22, 385. 34. Pfeiffer, H. C. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 1978, 15,887. 35. ; Idesawa, M. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 1978, 15, 883. 36. Thomson, M. G. ; Collier, R. ; Herriott, D. R. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 1978, 15, 891. 37. Chang, T. H. P. Proc. On "Electron & Ion Beam Sci. ; Electrochem Soc. : Princeton, ΝJ, 1974; p. 97. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1985. 38 38. 39.

From the standpoint of the resist, there are two important factors that limit the utility of conventional chemical positive photoresists. , the photoproducts also absorb at 250 nm. Secondly, the novolac matrix resin strongly absorbs at 250 nm, and the combined absorption of the P A C and the resin renders films more than 1 μηι thick essentially opaque at 250 nm so that little or no radiation reaches the photoactive compound at the resist-substrate interface. Attempts to photodecompose the P A C at the resist/substrate interface by increasing exposure time serve only to overexpose the upper levels of the resist which leads to degraded profiles on development.

In this instance, the weak links are niobium wires 25 nm wide fabricated by electron beam. ; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1985. 2. 35 Practical and Fundamental Aspects of Lithography BROERS Typically a hundred times this exposure is needed to reduce the uncertainty to an acceptable level of <5%. 1 μπι edge definition is required is 10~ C / c m . This in effect removes the sensitivity advantage of ions over electrons because resists with a sensitivity of 10~ C / c m are available for electrons.

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